Report References

Complete References For Omega-3 Index Reports (Basic, Plus and Complete).

1. Block RC, Harris WS, Reid KJ, Sands SA, Spertus JA. EPA and DHA in blood cell membranes from acute coronary syndrome patients and controls. Atherosclerosis. 2007;197:821-828

2. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, Weinmann S, Wicklund KG, Albright J, Bovbjerg V, Arbogast P, Smith H, Kushi LH, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1995;274:1363-1367

3. Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Ma J. Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. The New England journal of medicine. 2002;346:1113-1118

4. Otsuka R, Tange C, Nishita Y, Kato Y, Imai T, Ando F, Shimokata H. Serum docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and risk of cognitive decline over 10 years among elderly japanese. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2014;68:503-509

5. Tan ZS, Harris WS, Beiser AS, Au R, Himali JJ, Debette S, Pikula A, Decarli C, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, Robins SJ, Seshadri S. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging. Neurology. 2012;78:658-664

6. Pottala JV, Yaffe K, Robinson JG, Espeland MA, Wallace R, Harris WS. Higher rbc epa + dha corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes: Whims-mri study. Neurology. 2014;82:435-442

7. Kulzow N, Witte AV, Kerti L, Grittner U, Schuchardt JP, Hahn A, Floel A. Impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on memory functions in healthy older adults. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD. 2016;51:713-725

8. Johnston DT, Deuster PA, Harris WS, Macrae H, Dretsch MN. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and neurocognitive performance in deployed u.S. Servicemembers. Nutr Neurosci. 2013;16:30-38

9. McNamara RK, Welge JA. Meta-analysis of erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid biostatus in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders. 2016;18:300-306

10. Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega−3 fatty acid and adhd: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clinical Psychology Review. 2014;34:496-505

11. Lin PY, Chiu CC, Huang SY, Su KP. A meta-analytic review of polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions in dementia. J Clin.Psychiatry. 2012;68:140-147

12. Merle BM, Benlian P, Puche N, Bassols A, Delcourt C, Souied EH. Circulating omega-3 fatty acids and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2014;55:2010-2019

13. Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Huang H, Sacks FM, Rimm EB, Wang M, Siscovick DS. Plasma phospholipid long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: A cohort study. Annals of internal medicine. 2013;158:515-525

14. Pottala JV, Garg S, Cohen BE, Whooley MA, Harris WS. Blood eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids predict all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease: The heart and soul study. Circ.Cardiovasc.Qual.Outcomes. 2010;3:406-412

15. Kleber ME, Delgado GE, Lorkowski S, Marz W, von Schacky C. Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography. The ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. Atherosclerosis. 2016;252:175-181

16. Flock MR, Skulas-Ray AC, Harris WS, Etherton TD, Fleming JA, Kris-Etherton PM. Determinants of erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acid content in response to fish oil supplementation: A dose-response randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2013;2:e000513

17. Dewell A, Marvasti FF, Harris WS, Tsao P, Gardner CD. Low- and high-dose plant and marine (n-3) fatty acids do not affect plasma inflammatory markers in adults with metabolic syndrome. The Journal of nutrition. 2011;141:2166-2171

18. Katan MB, Deslypere JP, van Birgelen AP, Penders M, Zegwaard M. Kinetics of the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into serum cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte membranes, and adipose tissue: An 18-month controlled study. Journal of lipid research. 1997;38:2012-2022

19. Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Kris-Etherton PM, Rudel LL, Appel LJ, Engler MM, Engler MB, Sacks FM. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: A science advisory from the american heart association nutrition committee. Circulation. 2009;119:902-907

20. Johnson GH, Fritsche K. Effect of dietary linoleic acid on markers of inflammation in healthy persons: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2012;112:1029-1041, 1041 e1021-1015

21. Farvid MS, Ding M, Pan A, Sun Q, Chiuve SE, Steffen LM, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary linoleic acid and risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation. 2014;130:1568-1578

22. Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1621-1625

23. Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N.Engl.J Med. 2006;354:1601-1613

24. Sun Q, Ma J, Campos H, Hankinson SE, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Hu FB. A prospective study of trans fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2007;115:1858-1865

25. Agriculture USDo. Dietary guidelines for americans. 2010.

26. Flock MR, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: Time to establish a dietary reference intake. Nutr Rev. 2013;71:692-707

27. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106:2747-2757

28. Harris WS, von Schacky C. The omega-3 index: A new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med. 2004;39:212-220

29. Hadley KB, Ryan AS, Forsyth S, Gautier S, Salem N. The essentiality of arachidonic acid in infant development. Nutrients. 2016;8

30. Rett BS, Whelan J. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming western-type diets: A systematic review. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8:36

31. Bibus D, Lands B. Balancing proportions of competing omega-3 and omega-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (hufa) in tissue lipids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2015;99:19-23

32. Harris WS. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and cardiovascular disease risk: Uses and abuses. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2006;8:453-459

33. Harris WS, Shearer GC. Omega-6 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: Friend, not foe? Circulation. 2014;130:1562-1564

34. Fritsche KL. Too much linoleic acid promotes inflammation-doesn’t it? Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids.2008.Sep.-Nov.;79.(3-5):173.-5.Epub.2008.Nov.5. 2008;79:173-175

35. Czernichow S, Thomas D, Bruckert E. N-6 fatty acids and cardiovascular health: A review of the evidence for dietary intake recommendations. Br.J Nutr. 2010;104:788-796

36. Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, Crowe F, Ward HA, Johnson L, Franco OH, Butterworth AS, Forouhi NG, Thompson SG, Khaw KT, Mozaffarian D, Danesh J, Di Angelantonio E. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine. 2014;160:398-406

37. Block RC, Harris WS, Reid KJ, Spertus JA. Omega-6 and trans fatty acids in blood cell membranes: A risk factor for acute coronary syndromes? Am Heart J. 2008;156:1117-1123

38. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, Covas MI, Corella D, Aros F, Gomez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pinto X, Basora J, Munoz MA, Sorli JV, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a mediterranean diet. The New England journal of medicine. 2013;368:1279-1290

39. Brown JM, Shelness GS, Rudel LL. Monounsaturated fatty acids and atherosclerosis: Opposing views from epidemiology and experimental animal models. Curr.Atheroscler.Rep. 2007;9:494-500

40. Volk BM, Kunces LJ, Freidenreich DJ, Kupchak BR, Saenz C, Artistizabal JC, Fernandez ML, Bruno RS, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Phinney SD, Volek JS. Effects of step-wise increases in dietary carbohydrate on circulating saturated fatty acids and palmitoleic acid in adults with metabolic syndrome. PloS one. 2014;9:e113605

41. Fretts AM, Mozaffarian D, Siscovick DS, King IB, McKnight B, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Sitlani C, Sacks FM, Song X, Sotoodehnia N, Spiegelman D, Lemaitre RN. Associations of plasma phospholipid sfas with total and cause-specific mortality in older adults differ according to sfa chain length. The Journal of nutrition. 2016;146:298-305

42. Riserus U. Fatty acids and insulin sensitivity. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 2008;11:100-105

43. Harris WS, Luo J, Pottala JV, Margolis KL, Espeland MA, Robinson JG. Red blood cell fatty acids and incident diabetes mellitus in the women’s health initiative memory study. PloS one. 2016;11:e0147894

44. Harris WS, Pottala JV, Vasan RS, Larson MG, Robins SJ. Changes in erythrocyte membrane trans and marine fatty acids between 1999 and 2006 in older americans. The Journal of nutrition. 2012;142:1297-1303

45. Kleber ME, Delgado GE, Lorkowski S, Marz W, von Schacky C. Trans-fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography: The ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:1072-1078


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